“Mosquitoes serve as vectors of many important diseases such as dengue fever, malaria, filariasis, encephalitis and yellow fever, which could affect human health.”
Mosquito is a familiar name to many people due to their nuisance and biting habit. Both male and female actually feed on nectar or plant juice. However, females of most species require a blood meal which served as protein source in order to lay fertile eggs. Biting usually occurs at night and dusk as well as dawn. During daytime, some mosquitoes will also bite if disturbed, for instance by someone walking through the bushes on which they are resting.
Common Hiding Places
Mosquitoes can adapt to almost every kind of aquatic situation such as ponds, drainage ditches, water contained in tree holes and other artificial containers as their breeding sites. The exceptions are open or large constant water flowing area (streams, rivers, seas, etc.).
Mosquito generally does not travel far (average between 8 and 16 km). Their flight range is mainly depended on several factors such as species, temperature, wind current and direction.
Common Mosquito Species
There are over 3,000 different species of mosquitoes have been identified throughout the world to date. Aedes sp., Anopheles sp. and Culex sp. are some of the most common species. Adult length varies greatly but usually will not greater than 16mm long with the body and legs.
Depends on the species, the body colour are mostly gray to dark but some are marked with white, silver, brown, green and even blue scales. Males could be recognized by having feathery antennae and mouthparts not suitable for piercing.
Mosquito goes through the complete metamorphosis (egg, larva, pupa and adult) in their life cycle and this development process need about 40-42 days in tropical conditions. Adult males live up to a week while female life span is about 1-2 months in nature or it could be shorter. Mosquitoes usually mate within a few days after turning into adults. At dusk, many males will form a large swarm where the female will fly into it and mate.
They could also be separated based on where and how their eggs are laid. For example, Anopheles sp. lays the eggs singly on water while for Culex sp.; hundreds of eggs are laid in raft shape. Aedes sp. usually oviposits at semi-dry places where the eggs can lie dormant for a few months.
Mosquitoes serve as vectors of many important diseases such as dengue fever, malaria, filariasis, encephalitis and yellow fever, which could affect human health.
Diseases-caused virus and bacteria are usually transmitted to the host during the feeding process (through the saliva or contact). According to some scientists, global warming will likely increase their number. More efforts should be concentrated on removal or treatment to the stagnant water sources where they usually breed in order to achieve a better control result.
This type of spray produces fine chemical droplets, which will allow the droplets to be suspended midair to kill flying mosquitoes. It is effective to control mosquitoes at a large compound area.
Ultra-Low Volume (ULV) Misting
This application is used indoors where it creates a space filled with insecticide. The chemical droplets produced are extremely fine, and these enable the droplets to be suspended midair, covering a wide area. This method also allows the mosquitoes to make contact with the chemical more effectively.
A larvicide is a type of insecticide that serves as a prevention to interrupt the development of larvae or pupa into adult mosquitoes. Larviciding emphasizes in targeting mosquitoes in their habitats where they reproduce. Therefore, this gives us humans the advantage of controlling them before they start biting the adults.
This will reduce the availability of harborage, water and food.